Madurai Under Chola Rule

During the peiod which saw the raise of Chola Klings started by Vijayalaya Cholan, Madurai was being ruled by Raja Simma Pandyan the Third. During this period there were several battles between the Cholas and Pandyas. In these the Cholas became victorious and the Pandyas were made to pay taxes and to pay. On refusal to pay the amounts several battles were fought. The inefficiency and non-corporation among the Pandya kings were mainly responsible for the ascendancy of Cholas influence in Madurai.

RAJASIMMAN THE THIRD

He was the son of Sadaya Varman Paranthagan. He had denoted huge sums to several temples and Pallis and became famous. The Chinnamanoor copper plate inscriptions were carried out during the 16th year of his rule. These inscriptions give detailed accounts of the ancestors of the Pandya kings. These inscriptions give the history of the Pandya kings who ruled in 8th and 9th century A.D.

This king had defeated the king Bootha VIKRAMA KESARI of KODUMPARUR, the king of VANCHI. Rajasimman the Third was defeated by Paranthaga Cholan the First, in 910 A.D. This message is available in the stone inscriptions commencing with "MADURAI KONDA KOPPARA KESARI". Having been defeated the Rajasimma Pandian sought the help of KASIPAN the fifth of Ceylon and again got defeated at VELLORE by Paranthaga Cholan in a battle. Thus the Pandya region came under the Cholas.

VEERA PANDYAN

He ruled from 946 A.D. to 966 A.D. He had the titles of "Pandy Mathandan" and "Cholanthagan". He was the son of Rajasimman the Third. He recovered the Pandya kingdom from the Cholas and ruled. He killed the Chola and got the title "CHOLAN THALAIKONDA KOVEERA pandyan" by the stone inscriptions. He was in turn killed by the Chola king called KARIKALAN IN 966 A.D. in a battle.

After this king, till the beginning of the 13th century the Pandya kings were only small kings paying royalities to the Chola kings. Details are available about these in the Chola stone inscriptions pertaining to 'First Rajaraja Cholan' to "Rajathi Raja Cholan". We can see some details about the Pandya kings during this period .

AMARA PUYANKAN

This Pandya king was defeated by First Rajaraja Cholan as revealed in the copper plate inscriptions of Thiruvalankaadu. When Rajaraja Cholan the first, was invading the Chera kingdom, he was obstructed by this Pandya king, but defeated him in the battle. The stone inscriptions of the Tanjavoor Temple reveals this message.

The Pandya kings occasionally became stronger and refused to pay the royalities to Cholas.Because of this Rajaraja Cholan the First, at the beginning of his rule, named his son as "Chola Pandian" and made him a ruler. Like this the kings Sundara Chola Pandian, Vikkinama Chola Pandian and Parakkunama Chola Pandian ruled over the Chola kingdom along with the Pandya kingdom from 1020 A.D. to 1070 A.D.

MANAPARAWAM, VEERAKERALA PANDYAN, SUNDARA PANDYAN, VIKRAMA PANDYAN, VEERAPANDIAN . These five were the rulers of the Pandya Region during the period of Rajathi Raja Cholan the First. They refused to come under the legal representatives and created local disorders. Rajathi Rajan waged a war against them in which Manaparana Pandian and Veerakerala Pandian were killed. Sundarapandian was defeated and escaped and hid in MULLAIYUR. Vikrama Pandian escaped to Ceylon . Veerapandian is reported to have been killed in 1048 A.D as per the stone inscriptions of MINDIKKAL in Kolar distinct. This news is available in the copper plates of THIRUKKALAR also.

SEEVALLAPA PANDYAN

This Pandya king was ruling the Pandya Regime paying roylaities to Rajendra Cholan the Second. In 1054 A.D. His queen donated several jewellary to the temple of THIRUVIYALUR of Chola Nadu (as revealed in the stone inscriptions of that place).

PANDYAN VEERA KESARI

He was the son of Seevallapa Pandyan. He fought with Veera Rajendra Cholan in 1065 A.D. and died. The Pandya kings got back their lost regions after defeating the Chola kings and were in power till 1081 A.D. In 1081 A.D. the First Kulothunga Cholan invaded the Pandya kingdom, defeated and killed the five Pandya kings ruling at that time. Some of the Pandya kings who were during the First Kulothunga Cholas are listed below .

SADAYA VARMAN SEEVALLAPAN

The stone inscriptions about this king is available in Thirunelveli and Madurai.

MARAVARMAN THIRIPUVANA CHAKRAVARTHI PARAKIRAMA PANDYAN

He came after Sadayan Seevallapan. The stone inscriptions of VIKKRAMANGALAM says that his 23rd year of rule is correponding to the 40th year of rule of the Chola king.

SADAYA VARMAN PARANTHAGA PANDYAN

He was the Pandya king during the last period of First Kulothunga Cholan and the first period of Vikkirama Cholan. He had defeated the Chera king, captured the town VILZINAM, defeated the Telugu region of South Kalingam. He arranged the grand lighting facilities at Thiruvanathapuram Perumal Temple. He married the daughter of KOOPAGA king. He started the affixing of the royal insignia (Kayal Fish) in all the measuring and weighing tools.

MARAVARMAN SEEVALLPAN

He was crowned in 1132 A.D. He got the royalities from the Chera king Veena Ravivarman. Stone inscriptions about this Pandya king are available in several cities of Thirunelveli District. He ruled upto 1162 A.D.

SADAYAVARMAN KULACHEKARA PANDYAN

He was the son of Maravarman Seevallapan. He was crowned in 1162 A.D. He ruled from Thirunelveli. Parakkirama Pandyan was ruling from Madurai. They fought between themselves to have control over the entire region. The defeated Parakkirama Pandyan sought the help of the Ceylon army and defeated the army of Kulachekara Pandyan. Then Kulachekaran sought the help of Chola army. With these helps both kings fought several battles in several places. In 1168 A.D. Kulachekara Pandian had got the Pandya kingdom from Rajathi Raja Cholan, but lost his kingdom in 1175 A.D. because of his misdeeds.

SADAYA VARMAN VEERA PANDYAN

He was the son of Parakkirama Pandyan. He ruled from 1175 A.D. with the help of Chola king. He also sought the help of the Ceylon army and got defeated in 1180 A.D. by Kulothunga Cholan. He then had to surrender to the Chola king.

MARAVARMAN VIKKIRAMA PANDYAN

He was the son of Sagaya Varman Kulachekara Pondyan. He started ruling the Pandya regime from 1180 A.D. with the great help of Kulothunga Cholan the Third. When Veera Pandyan along with the Chera army was attacking Madurai he defeated them with the help Chola king. He was in friendship with the Cholan till his life and ruled upto 1190 A.D.