The Fall Of Arcot Nawab & The Influence Of The British

After the death of Khan Sahib, the son of Mohammed Ali Amir-ul-umara was appointed as the representative at Trichy. He was looking after the administration of Madurai also. During his period Abiral Khan was looking after the administraion of Madurai for a few years. Mohammed Ali had got the help of the British to retain his power and contain the mutiny of the Palayakkarars at Karnataka. Hence half the amount of revenues he got from Madurai and Thirunelveli were given to the British to main farm the English army. Also Mohammed Ali was paying heavy interests to the amounts that were due to the English. Thus Mohammed Ali was indebted heavily to the British. In order to pay back the debts Mohammed Ali made an agreement with the British by which he will pay the revenue from the Karnataka except a part (1/6) retained for his own expenses (1781)

The British got the rights to appoint leasees also apart from the lions' share of the Karnataka income. The agreement of 1781 made the influence of the British over Madurai and Karnataka still higher.

In 1787 Mohammjed Ali made another agreement with the British in which he gave further rights to them. The debts of the Nawab to the British made him weaker. Mohammed Ali was the Karnataka Nawab for namessake. The full powers came under the East India Company. The agreement of 1787 gave the rights to the British to levy taxes in Karnataka. To look after the tax collection at Madurai Alexander Mclyod was appointed in Madurai. By another agreement in 1792 the Nawab gave the rights to rule Madurai and Thirunelveli regions till his debts were got discharged in full. By this the English became the real rulers of Madurai and other regions. In 1795 Arcot Nawab Mohammed Ali died without being able to pay his debts to the British.

After the death of Mohammed Ali, his son UMDAN-UL-UMARA became the Nawab. He was also a namesake like his father.

Some of the Palayakkarar who did not like the dominance of the English, the foreigners, revolted against the British under the head of Kattabomman who was the Panchalam Kurichy Palayakkarar. The English were able to contain hie power and hanged him to death in 1799. After the heroic death of Kattabomman, his brother UMAITHURAI joined the Sivagangai ruler of Maruthu brothers and fought against the British. The mutiny of the Palayakkarars against the British for freedom was carried out in Madurai also in (1800-1801). During this struggle UMAITHURAI came to Madurai and tried to capture Madurai Fort. But the Fort was held very heavily safeguarded by the British. Umaithurai and his revoltees had to abandon the attempt.

The British crushed the struggle of the Palayakkarars with their heavy army. Maruthu Brothers, Umaithurai and others were hanged to death by the British in 1801.In 1801 the Nawab Umdat-ul-umara died. At this time the governor general of India Lord Wellesly (1798-1805) was taking serious steps to establish the British domination in India. After the death of Nawab Umdal-ul-umara his son Ali Hussain became Arcot Nawab. But the British appointed Hasim-ut-Dhoula (another grand son of Mohammed Ali) to rule as the Nawab and made an agreement with him (1801). By this the entire Karnataka region which was under the control of the Nawab was annexed to the English territory in India Hasim Ut Dhoula was paid pittance as maintenances. The rule of the Nawabs thus ended and the direct rule of the British started.

Lord Wellesly, after defeating the Mysore King Tippu, captured his areas, annexed to Madras and formed the Madras Presidency (1801). In 1751 the East India Company had come to help the Karnataka Nawab Mohammed Ali. Taking advantage oif his weakness , the British were able to get the full rights to rule the entire Tamil area in 1801.