Pandyas of the Intermediate period

(i) Kadunkon

The Pandya kingdom was taken back from the Kalappirars at Madurai by Kadunkon, the Pandya king. He ruled Pandya kingdom from 575 A.D. to 600 A.D.

(ii) Maravarman Avani Choolamani

The copper leaflets of Velvikudi says that he is the son of the Pandya king Kadunkon. He ruled from 600 A.D. to 625 A.D. All the Pandya kings that came later attached the surnames called Maravarman and Sadaya Varman.

(iii) Chelzian Chenthan

He is the son of Avani Choolamani. He added the surname Sadaya Varman and ruled Pandya kingdom from 625 A.D. to 640 A.D. The copper leaflets of Velvikudi are in praise for him. It is during his period that the great Chinese travellor Yhang Chuvan had come to Kanchi the capital of the Pallavas.

(iv) Maravarman Harikesari

During 640 A.D. the son of Chelian Chenthan came to power. He is also called Sundarapandian, Koonpandyan, Ninra seer Nedu Maran. He was the lover of Jainism, but Thirugnana Sambandar converted him to Saivism. He and his wife Mangayarkarasi, the Minister Kulacharyar did yromon service to the Saivism in Pandya kingdom. These three persons are also included in the 63 Nayanmars in PERIYA PURANAM collections.

He defeated several kings of Cheras, Cholas, Paravars and otherchieftains and became the king of the kings. This message is availble in the copper plate writings of Velvikudi. During his period 'Yuag Tseung" has come to Pandya kingdom. He has written in praise of the fertility and about the pearls of Pandya kingdom.

(v) KOCHADAYAN RAVADHEERAN

He as the son of MARAVARMAN HARIKESARI came to the thrown in 670 A.D. on the death of his father. This Pandya king caught hold of Chera, Chola, Karnataka and Kongu countries. Hence he is mentioned by several names in the Vehikudi copper plates, like, CHENKOL THENNAVAN, VANAVAN,CHEMBIAN, MADURA KARUNATAKAN, KONGAR KOMAN, KING OF KINGS etc.

He got the name RANA DHEERAN after his victory over RANA RASIKAN who was a CHALUKIYA VIKRAMATHITHAN. During his period the great Sundaramurthy Nayanar visited along with Perumal Narayanar and worshipped the Alawai Deity and Thirupparan Kundram devoties .

(vi) HARIKESARI PARANKUSA MARAVARMAN

He was the son of Rana Dheeran. He is also called the RAJASIMMAN the First and THERMARAN. He ruled from 710 A.D. to 765 A.D. During his period the Chola kingdom was being ruled by Nandhi Varma Pallavar. He was defeated in several battles by this Pandya king. He annexed the Kongu Nadu and donated large treasures of gold and other ornaments to the Shiva Temple at Thirupandy Kodumudi. This message is available in the Velvi Kudi copper plates.

(vii) NEDUNCHADYAN PARANTHAGAN

He ruled from 765 A.D. He was the son of Harikesari Parankusa Mara Varman. After his ruling period only several stone inscriptions and copper plate inscriptions are available. These are old enough. The copper plates available in London Museum pertaining to SEEVARA MANGALAM, and inscriptions on stone at ANAIMALAI and THIRUPPARA KUNDRAM are telling several details of the Kalappirars and the intermediate Pandyas.

The king Paranthagan is famous for his victory over several kings like Pallavas, AAIVEL, KURUMBARAI, KONGAR in several battle. To safeguard his country he had constructed a forta in the south at KALAKUDI complete with motes and compound walls and a standing army. This place is now called UKKIRAN KOTTAI and is in a dilapidated condition.

Among the Pandya kings he is the only Jain King. During his period the great Vaishnava Alwar PERIYALVAR lived. From the copper plates of SEEVARA MANGALAM we know about the various special titles bestowed on this king.

There were several political leaders during his period which are detailed in the inscriptions on stones and copper plates.

1. MAARAN KAARI

He was the son of Maaran of Kalakudi. He was the Minister of Nedun Chadayan during the early period. He constructed the stone temple at YANAI MALAI near Madurai for NARASINGA PERUMAL in 770 A.D. He was given the title of MOOVENTHA MANGALA PERARAIYAN by the king. He was the author of VELVI KUDI copper plates.

2. MAARAN EYINEN

He was the brother of Kaari and was the minister of Paranthagan in the later half period. He had the title of Pandy Mangala SAYARAIYIN. He has arranged the Front Mandapam for Narasinga Perumal of Yanai Malai.

3. SATHAN GANAPATHY

He was the son of Sathan of Karavantha puram. He was the army general of Paranthaga Pandyan during the first half period. He arranged the renovation of Thirupparankundram Temple and the Holy tank nearby. These details are available in the stone inscriptions.

4. YENATHI SATHANCHATHAN

He was the brother of Sathan Ganapathy. He was the author of the Tamil portions of the Velvikudi copper plates. He had the title of YENATHI. He made the precedence of writing history by his writings of the Velvikudi copper plates which give in detail about the Pandyas of that time.

5. DHEERADHARAN MOORTHY EYINAN

He is considered as the authority of the inscriptions of the copper plates of SEEVARAMANGALAM. He was the chief of the Pandyan army. He got the title of "VEERA MANGALA PERARAIN" from the king.

6. SANKARAN SEETHARAN

He was the chief of the elephant cavalry of Paranthagam. He got the title of "PANDY ILANGO MANGALA PERARAIAN" from the king.

7. Raja Simha Pandyan the second

He was the son of Paranthagan. He ruled from 790 A.D. to 792 A.D. He has been mentioned in the copper plate inscriptions of Chinnamanur.

8. VARAGUNA MAHARAJAN

He was the son of Rajasimhan. He has been eulogised in the Chinnamanur copper plate inscriptions as "KOTRAVARGAL THOLZU KALARKAAL KOVARAGUNA MAHARAJAN". During his period the entire Chola region were under the Pandyas as revealed from the stone inscriptions. He had denoted 125 GOLD COINS to trichy DEITY for the lighting expenses and 290 gold coins to Ambasamudram Temple for permanent poojas.

This king was famous for his devotion to Shiva. This has been mentioned by Manickavasagar, Pattinathadigal and Nambi Yandar Nambi in their songs. He ruled for a long 43 years from 792 A.D. to 835 A.D.

9. SEEMARAN CHEEVALLAPAN

He was the son of the first Varaguna Pandyan. He ruled from 835 A.D to 862 A.D. He was victorious in the battles at KUNNUR SINGALAM, VILZIGNAM. He defeated several kings like KUDAMOOKIL GANGAR, PALLAVA, CHOLA, KALINGAR, MARAGATHAR. These news are available in the copper plate inscriptions of Chinnamanoor. He invaded Ceylon, defeated the king First SENAN and looted the towns and brought precious and costly articles from the Budha VIHARS. This message is available in the Ceylon History in MAHAVAMSAM. During his period it is said that there was a golden coin in currency called 'AVANIPA SEKARAN KOLAGAI' in Pandy kingdom.

10. ETTICHANTAN

He was the famous army chief of Seemaran. He did great services and Philanthropic acts in Southern Pandyan kingdom. He got the title of 'IRUMBAIK KUDI KILAVAN' from the king. He constructed the Shiva temples in MADALUR THEN VELIYAN KUDI and one Jain temple in IRUMBAIKUDI. He constructed several lakes, tanks, channels in Pandyan territory and got the title of 'IRUNCHOLA NADU' for his country and become very famous.

11. VARAGUNA VARMAN

He was the first son of Seemaran Seevallaban. He came to the throne in 862 A.D. He cultivated good friendhips with Pallavas. He captured of Chola Nadu after defeating the VIJAYALAYA CHOLAN. In 880 A.D. he fought with the threesome of Pallavas, Chola and GANGAR at THIRUPPURAMBIYAM. He denoted 1400 gold coins to the Thiruchendur Muruga for arranging Poojas throughout the year.

12. PARANTHAGA PANDYAN

He was the second son of Seemaran Seevallaban. He has defeated UKRAM at KARAGIRI (UKRAN KOTTAI), and the Kongars after devastating PENNAKATA NAGAR. He denoted to several temples generously and became very famous. These details are available in Chinnamanoor copper plates. He had the title of "VEERA NARAYANAN". His queen VANAVANMA DEVI is even now denoted along with the SERAMA DEVI (the name of the town).