Madurai Under Islamic Rule


The rule of the Pandya Kings in Madurai came to an end after the invasion of South India by Malikapur. Madurai and the surroundings areas were captured by the Delhi Sultan Mohammed-Bin-Tuglak. Jalaludeen Hasansha who had conducted this invasion was made the governor of Madurai. Taking advantage of the inefficient administration of Tuglak, Hasansha started a separate rule at Madurai independently.

Following Hasansha several islamic kings like Alavudeen Uthaji, Rutpudeen, Jiyasudeen, Nazrudeen, Adilsha, Bakrudeen Mubarak Shaw, Alavudeen Sikkander Shaw, etc were ruling Madurai. Some of them have released their own coins. The stone inscriptions giving details of these kings are available at Rangium and Panaiyur of Pudukottai District.

Alavudeen Uthathi (1340-1341) was devoted to Islam very much. He made an invasion on the Hindu king VEERAVALLANAN the Third of the Hoysalam. During this batle Alavudeen was killed.

Jiyavudeen Dhamkansa, the Sultan of Madurai, had worked as a soldier under Mohammed-Bin-Tuglak. During his rule he tortured the Hindus very much. To redeem the Hindus from the tyranny of the Muslims the Hoysala King Vallalan the Third attacked Kannanur Koppam (Samayapuram) which was the Islamic Fort at that time. But he was defeated (in1342) by the Madurai army. His body was hung from the walls of Madurai Fort. During the entire period of Madurai Sultans, the period of Jiyavudeen Damkansha is considered the most tyrannical. During this period the famous African traveller IBIN PADIUTA visited Madurai. He was in the council of the Delhi Sultan Mohammad-bin-tuklak for 10 years. He was sent to China as an ambassador. On the way he came to Madurai. This travellor has written in great details about the battle of 1342, about the tyranny of Jiyavudeen, his mass murdering of Hindus and about the tortures to Hindus and also about the Cholera epidemic in Madurai. Jiyavudeen and members of his family died from Cholera in 1342.

Nazurudeen came next as the Islamic king. To show the pleasure of his being appointed as the king unexpectedly he gave charities generously. IBIN PATUDA left Madurai in 1344 to China as ambassador.

In 1356 Adil Shaw became Madurai Sultan. After this king, Bakrudeen Mubarak became Madurai Sultan.

Vijaya Nagar empire was established with the aims of opposing Delhi Sultanate and to save Hindu culture and religion. Hariharar and Bukkar were the two brothers who have established it. Kumara Kambanan was the son of Bukkar, and a heroic warrier from early days. In 1362 he defeated the Sambuvarayar at Thondai Mandalam. He invaded Madurai to remove the Islamic rule against Bakrudeen Mubarak in 1371. The Madurai Sultan was killed in the battle.

During the Islamic rule in Madurai from 1330 till 1371, the Hindu Culture was affected very much, Hindus were tortured and Hindu temples were not cared for. The victory of Kambanar over Madurai was a turning point in Tamil History.

During the rule of Harihara the Second the Islamic influence in Madurai was removed in full and Madurai was annexed to the Vijaya Nagar Empire.