Pandias of the Kadai Sangamperiod

The researchers are of the opinion that 300 B.C to 200 B.C. is the period of the Kadai Sangam. During this period forty nine Pandia kings have ruled as per the literature called Kalaviyalurai. Among these only a few names of the Pandia kings are known from the various literatures of the Sangam period. The Pathu Paattu, and Ettuth Thogai are the writings of this period.

(i) Pandian MudathThirumaaran

The city of Kapadapuram of Idaichangam (Intermediate Sangam) got engulfed by the sea and then the Kadai Sangam was founded in Madurai. This king well versed in literature was determined to flourish the Tamil language. In the literary work called Natrirnai (105-228) there are two poems said to have been written by Mudath thirumaaran.

(ii) Pandian Mathivaanan

He is one of the Pandia kings of the Kadai Sangam period. He is said to have written a book called 'Mathivaanar Natakath Tamil Nool'. This message is revealed by Adiyaarkku Nallar who was the commentator on Silappadikaaram. This rare book is not available now.

(iii) Porkaip Pandian

The deity of Mathurapuri, after appearing in the presence of Kannagi is telling about the greatness of various kings in South. The history of Porkaip Pandian is one such. This message is seen in Silappadikaaram and in some proverbs.

(iv) Kadalulz Maainda Ilam Peru Valzuthi

This king belonging to the Kadai Sangam period is said to have written poems. There is one poem (15) in Paripaadal and one (182) in Puranaanooru.

(v) Pandian Arivudai Nambi

This king was a great scholar and a philonthropist. The poet Pisiraanthaiar has written a song about him in his Porunmolik Kaanchithurai. There are songs said to have been written by Arivudai Nambi in Sangam Literatures (Natrinai-15, Kurunthogai-230, Aganaanooru 28, Puranaanooru-188). His poem (Puram 188) about the greatness of the wealth of children is a very famous one.

(vi) Ollaiyurthantha Bootha Pandian

This Pandya king was a good scholar and a warrier. He has a song in Pura Nanooru and another one in Aga Nanooru. From these songs we can find his good heart of friendship and his love to his wife. At the time of his death his wife Perunkoppendu also died along with him. This is revealed in the Purananooru songs.

(vii) Pandyan Aryappadai Kadantha Nedunchelzian

This is the king mentioned in the Kannagi episodes. He sentenced Kovalan to death at the instigation of his goldsmith, but later on, realising his mistakes, he died. He had won the Aryas of the North. He was famous as a poet and scholar. By the 183rd song of Purananooru by Nedunchelzian we can see the greatness of learning and of the scholars.

(viii) Pandyan Chitramadathu Thunjiya Nedumaran

He is also called Vetriver Chezian. He was crowned as a king of Madurai from Korkai. He is famous for arranging the grand festival of Kannagi. He has been praised in great length by Seethalai Sathanar in his Manimekala.

(ix) Thalaiyanankanathu Cheru Venra Pandyan Nedunchelzian

He came to the reign in his young age. He is considered as the best of the Pandya kings. He defeated seven kings in the battle of Thalaiyalankam and became very famous as a courageous king. Based as a subject on this king there are two works (1) Madurai Kaanchi and (2) Nedu Nelvaadai in the Pathupattu collections.

During his time the Tamil Sangam was famous with Mangudi Maruthanaan as the head. This king is mentioned in Purananooru songs in Vanchina Kanchi Paadal and in Idaikumroor Kilaar songs (Pur. 77). In Madurai Kanchi this king has been mentioned as a descendant of Lord Shiva.

(x) Pandyan Gananp Pereyil Kadantha Ugra Peru Valzuthi

This king was the last that patronised the Kadai Sangam. He got this name after his victory over Vengai. Marban at Ganappereyul (Kalayar Koil). It was he who arranged the collection of Agananooru songs with the help of Utharasanmar, son of Uppoori Kudi Kilaar. He is also expert at the poems in the style of Marutha Thinai and Kurunji Thinai. We find two songs in his name, (d) in Natrnai (98) and (b) in Agam (26).

(xi) Karunkai Yolwal Perumpeyar Valzuthi

This king is comtemporary to Karikal Cholan. He has been eulogised by the poet Irum Pidar Thalaiyar in the songs about his courage and generosity.

(xii) Pannadu Thantha Pandyan Maran Valzuthi.

He was resposible for the collection of Natrrinai poems. He was a good Tamil scholar. We find 3 songs in his name and in Kurunthogai (270) Nattrinai (97,301).

(xiii) Nal Valzuthi

He was the author of the 12th song of Paripadal. From this song we can know the greatness of River Vaigai and the Festival of New Waters.

(ix) Koodakarathu Thunjiya Maran Valuthi.

He was famous for his courage and generosity. The poet Nakkeeran has eulogised him in his Purananooru (56) song.

(xi) Kuru Valzuthi

He was a great scholar. In Agananooru (150) one song is in his name.

(xii) Velliambalathu Thunjiya Peruvalzuthi

This king was eulogised in Purananooru (58) song by the poet Kaari Kannanaar.

(xiv) Nambi Nedumchelzian

He was generous, courageous and famous for his justice. At the time of his death, the song (Pur. 234) by Pereyil Muruvalar is a bemoaning one.